# Struct bevy::math::DAffine3

``````#[repr(C)]pub struct DAffine3 {
pub matrix3: DMat3,
pub translation: DVec3,
}``````
Expand description

A 3D affine transform, which can represent translation, rotation, scaling and shear.

## Fields§

§`matrix3: DMat3`§`translation: DVec3`

## Implementations§

source§

### impl DAffine3

source

#### pub const ZERO: DAffine3 = _

The degenerate zero transform.

This transforms any finite vector and point to zero. The zero transform is non-invertible.

source

#### pub const IDENTITY: DAffine3 = _

The identity transform.

Multiplying a vector with this returns the same vector.

source

All NAN:s.

source

#### pub const fn from_cols( x_axis: DVec3, y_axis: DVec3, z_axis: DVec3, w_axis: DVec3, ) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from three column vectors.

source

#### pub fn from_cols_array(m: &[f64; 12]) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from a `[f64; 12]` array stored in column major order.

source

#### pub fn to_cols_array(&self) -> [f64; 12]

Creates a `[f64; 12]` array storing data in column major order.

source

#### pub fn from_cols_array_2d(m: &[[f64; 3]; 4]) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from a `[[f64; 3]; 4]` 3D array stored in column major order. If your data is in row major order you will need to `transpose` the returned matrix.

source

#### pub fn to_cols_array_2d(&self) -> [[f64; 3]; 4]

Creates a `[[f64; 3]; 4]` 3D array storing data in column major order. If you require data in row major order `transpose` the matrix first.

source

#### pub fn from_cols_slice(slice: &[f64]) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from the first 12 values in `slice`.

##### §Panics

Panics if `slice` is less than 12 elements long.

source

#### pub fn write_cols_to_slice(self, slice: &mut [f64])

Writes the columns of `self` to the first 12 elements in `slice`.

##### §Panics

Panics if `slice` is less than 12 elements long.

source

#### pub fn from_scale(scale: DVec3) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform that changes scale. Note that if any scale is zero the transform will be non-invertible.

source

#### pub fn from_quat(rotation: DQuat) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from the given `rotation` quaternion.

source

#### pub fn from_axis_angle(axis: DVec3, angle: f64) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform containing a 3D rotation around a normalized rotation `axis` of `angle` (in radians).

source

#### pub fn from_rotation_x(angle: f64) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform containing a 3D rotation around the x axis of `angle` (in radians).

source

#### pub fn from_rotation_y(angle: f64) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform containing a 3D rotation around the y axis of `angle` (in radians).

source

#### pub fn from_rotation_z(angle: f64) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform containing a 3D rotation around the z axis of `angle` (in radians).

source

#### pub fn from_translation(translation: DVec3) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transformation from the given 3D `translation`.

source

#### pub fn from_mat3(mat3: DMat3) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from a 3x3 matrix (expressing scale, shear and rotation)

source

#### pub fn from_mat3_translation(mat3: DMat3, translation: DVec3) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from a 3x3 matrix (expressing scale, shear and rotation) and a translation vector.

Equivalent to `DAffine3::from_translation(translation) * DAffine3::from_mat3(mat3)`

source

#### pub fn from_scale_rotation_translation( scale: DVec3, rotation: DQuat, translation: DVec3, ) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from the given 3D `scale`, `rotation` and `translation`.

Equivalent to `DAffine3::from_translation(translation) * DAffine3::from_quat(rotation) * DAffine3::from_scale(scale)`

source

#### pub fn from_rotation_translation( rotation: DQuat, translation: DVec3, ) -> DAffine3

Creates an affine transform from the given 3D `rotation` and `translation`.

Equivalent to `DAffine3::from_translation(translation) * DAffine3::from_quat(rotation)`

source

#### pub fn from_mat4(m: DMat4) -> DAffine3

The given `DMat4` must be an affine transform, i.e. contain no perspective transform.

source

#### pub fn to_scale_rotation_translation(&self) -> (DVec3, DQuat, DVec3)

Extracts `scale`, `rotation` and `translation` from `self`.

The transform is expected to be non-degenerate and without shearing, or the output will be invalid.

##### §Panics

Will panic if the determinant `self.matrix3` is zero or if the resulting scale vector contains any zero elements when `glam_assert` is enabled.

source

#### pub fn look_to_lh(eye: DVec3, dir: DVec3, up: DVec3) -> DAffine3

Creates a left-handed view transform using a camera position, an up direction, and a facing direction.

For a view coordinate system with `+X=right`, `+Y=up` and `+Z=forward`.

source

#### pub fn look_to_rh(eye: DVec3, dir: DVec3, up: DVec3) -> DAffine3

Creates a right-handed view transform using a camera position, an up direction, and a facing direction.

For a view coordinate system with `+X=right`, `+Y=up` and `+Z=back`.

source

#### pub fn look_at_lh(eye: DVec3, center: DVec3, up: DVec3) -> DAffine3

Creates a left-handed view transform using a camera position, an up direction, and a focal point. For a view coordinate system with `+X=right`, `+Y=up` and `+Z=forward`.

##### §Panics

Will panic if `up` is not normalized when `glam_assert` is enabled.

source

#### pub fn look_at_rh(eye: DVec3, center: DVec3, up: DVec3) -> DAffine3

Creates a right-handed view transform using a camera position, an up direction, and a focal point. For a view coordinate system with `+X=right`, `+Y=up` and `+Z=back`.

##### §Panics

Will panic if `up` is not normalized when `glam_assert` is enabled.

source

#### pub fn transform_point3(&self, rhs: DVec3) -> DVec3

Transforms the given 3D points, applying shear, scale, rotation and translation.

source

#### pub fn transform_vector3(&self, rhs: DVec3) -> DVec3

Transforms the given 3D vector, applying shear, scale and rotation (but NOT translation).

To also apply translation, use `Self::transform_point3()` instead.

source

#### pub fn is_finite(&self) -> bool

Returns `true` if, and only if, all elements are finite.

If any element is either `NaN`, positive or negative infinity, this will return `false`.

source

#### pub fn is_nan(&self) -> bool

Returns `true` if any elements are `NaN`.

source

#### pub fn abs_diff_eq(&self, rhs: DAffine3, max_abs_diff: f64) -> bool

Returns true if the absolute difference of all elements between `self` and `rhs` is less than or equal to `max_abs_diff`.

This can be used to compare if two 3x4 matrices contain similar elements. It works best when comparing with a known value. The `max_abs_diff` that should be used used depends on the values being compared against.

For more see comparing floating point numbers.

source

#### pub fn inverse(&self) -> DAffine3

Return the inverse of this transform.

Note that if the transform is not invertible the result will be invalid.

## Trait Implementations§

source§

### impl Clone for DAffine3

source§

#### fn clone(&self) -> DAffine3

Returns a copy of the value. Read more
1.0.0 · source§

#### fn clone_from(&mut self, source: &Self)

Performs copy-assignment from `source`. Read more
source§

### impl Debug for DAffine3

Available on non-`target_arch="spirv"` only.
source§

#### fn fmt(&self, fmt: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), Error>

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
source§

### impl Default for DAffine3

source§

#### fn default() -> DAffine3

Returns the “default value” for a type. Read more
source§

### impl Deref for DAffine3

§

#### type Target = Cols4<DVec3>

The resulting type after dereferencing.
source§

#### fn deref(&self) -> &<DAffine3 as Deref>::Target

Dereferences the value.
source§

### impl DerefMut for DAffine3

source§

#### fn deref_mut(&mut self) -> &mut <DAffine3 as Deref>::Target

Mutably dereferences the value.
source§

### impl<'de> Deserialize<'de> for DAffine3

source§

#### fn deserialize<D>( deserializer: D, ) -> Result<DAffine3, <D as Deserializer<'de>>::Error>where D: Deserializer<'de>,

Deserialize this value from the given Serde deserializer. Read more
source§

### impl Display for DAffine3

Available on non-`target_arch="spirv"` only.
source§

#### fn fmt(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), Error>

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more
source§

### impl From<DAffine3> for DMat4

source§

#### fn from(m: DAffine3) -> DMat4

Converts to this type from the input type.
§

### impl FromReflect for DAffine3where DAffine3: Any + Send + Sync, DMat3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection, DVec3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection,

§

#### fn from_reflect(reflect: &(dyn Reflect + 'static)) -> Option<DAffine3>

Constructs a concrete instance of `Self` from a reflected value.
§

#### fn take_from_reflect( reflect: Box<dyn Reflect>, ) -> Result<Self, Box<dyn Reflect>>

Attempts to downcast the given value to `Self` using, constructing the value using `from_reflect` if that fails. Read more
§

### impl GetTypeRegistration for DAffine3where DAffine3: Any + Send + Sync, DMat3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection, DVec3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection,

§

#### fn get_type_registration() -> TypeRegistration

Returns the default `TypeRegistration` for this type.
§

#### fn register_type_dependencies(registry: &mut TypeRegistry)

Registers other types needed by this type. Read more
source§

### impl Mul<DAffine3> for DMat4

§

#### type Output = DMat4

The resulting type after applying the `*` operator.
source§

#### fn mul(self, rhs: DAffine3) -> <DMat4 as Mul<DAffine3>>::Output

Performs the `*` operation. Read more
source§

### impl Mul<DMat4> for DAffine3

§

#### type Output = DMat4

The resulting type after applying the `*` operator.
source§

#### fn mul(self, rhs: DMat4) -> <DAffine3 as Mul<DMat4>>::Output

Performs the `*` operation. Read more
source§

### impl Mul for DAffine3

§

#### type Output = DAffine3

The resulting type after applying the `*` operator.
source§

#### fn mul(self, rhs: DAffine3) -> <DAffine3 as Mul>::Output

Performs the `*` operation. Read more
source§

### impl MulAssign for DAffine3

source§

#### fn mul_assign(&mut self, rhs: DAffine3)

Performs the `*=` operation. Read more
source§

### impl PartialEq for DAffine3

source§

#### fn eq(&self, rhs: &DAffine3) -> bool

This method tests for `self` and `other` values to be equal, and is used by `==`.
1.0.0 · source§

#### fn ne(&self, other: &Rhs) -> bool

This method tests for `!=`. The default implementation is almost always sufficient, and should not be overridden without very good reason.
source§

### impl<'a> Product<&'a DAffine3> for DAffine3

source§

#### fn product<I>(iter: I) -> DAffine3where I: Iterator<Item = &'a DAffine3>,

Method which takes an iterator and generates `Self` from the elements by multiplying the items.
§

### impl Reflect for DAffine3where DAffine3: Any + Send + Sync, DMat3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection, DVec3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection,

§

#### fn get_represented_type_info(&self) -> Option<&'static TypeInfo>

Returns the `TypeInfo` of the type represented by this value. Read more
§

#### fn into_any(self: Box<DAffine3>) -> Box<dyn Any>

Returns the value as a `Box<dyn Any>`.
§

#### fn as_any(&self) -> &(dyn Any + 'static)

Returns the value as a `&dyn Any`.
§

#### fn as_any_mut(&mut self) -> &mut (dyn Any + 'static)

Returns the value as a `&mut dyn Any`.
§

#### fn into_reflect(self: Box<DAffine3>) -> Box<dyn Reflect>

Casts this type to a boxed reflected value.
§

#### fn as_reflect(&self) -> &(dyn Reflect + 'static)

Casts this type to a reflected value.
§

#### fn as_reflect_mut(&mut self) -> &mut (dyn Reflect + 'static)

Casts this type to a mutable reflected value.
§

#### fn clone_value(&self) -> Box<dyn Reflect>

Clones the value as a `Reflect` trait object. Read more
§

#### fn set(&mut self, value: Box<dyn Reflect>) -> Result<(), Box<dyn Reflect>>

Performs a type-checked assignment of a reflected value to this value. Read more
§

#### fn try_apply( &mut self, value: &(dyn Reflect + 'static), ) -> Result<(), ApplyError>

Tries to `apply` a reflected value to this value. Read more
§

#### fn reflect_kind(&self) -> ReflectKind

Returns a zero-sized enumeration of “kinds” of type. Read more
§

#### fn reflect_ref(&self) -> ReflectRef<'_>

Returns an immutable enumeration of “kinds” of type. Read more
§

#### fn reflect_mut(&mut self) -> ReflectMut<'_>

Returns a mutable enumeration of “kinds” of type. Read more
§

#### fn reflect_owned(self: Box<DAffine3>) -> ReflectOwned

Returns an owned enumeration of “kinds” of type. Read more
§

#### fn reflect_partial_eq(&self, value: &(dyn Reflect + 'static)) -> Option<bool>

Returns a “partial equality” comparison result. Read more
§

#### fn debug(&self, f: &mut Formatter<'_>) -> Result<(), Error>

Debug formatter for the value. Read more
§

#### fn apply(&mut self, value: &(dyn Reflect + 'static))

Applies a reflected value to this value. Read more
§

#### fn reflect_hash(&self) -> Option<u64>

Returns a hash of the value (which includes the type). Read more
§

#### fn serializable(&self) -> Option<Serializable<'_>>

Returns a serializable version of the value. Read more
§

#### fn is_dynamic(&self) -> bool

Indicates whether or not this type is a dynamic type. Read more
source§

### impl Serialize for DAffine3

source§

#### fn serialize<S>( &self, serializer: S, ) -> Result<<S as Serializer>::Ok, <S as Serializer>::Error>where S: Serializer,

Serialize this value into the given Serde serializer. Read more
§

### impl Struct for DAffine3where DAffine3: Any + Send + Sync, DMat3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection, DVec3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection,

§

#### fn field(&self, name: &str) -> Option<&(dyn Reflect + 'static)>

Returns a reference to the value of the field named `name` as a `&dyn Reflect`.
§

#### fn field_mut(&mut self, name: &str) -> Option<&mut (dyn Reflect + 'static)>

Returns a mutable reference to the value of the field named `name` as a `&mut dyn Reflect`.
§

#### fn field_at(&self, index: usize) -> Option<&(dyn Reflect + 'static)>

Returns a reference to the value of the field with index `index` as a `&dyn Reflect`.
§

#### fn field_at_mut(&mut self, index: usize) -> Option<&mut (dyn Reflect + 'static)>

Returns a mutable reference to the value of the field with index `index` as a `&mut dyn Reflect`.
§

#### fn name_at(&self, index: usize) -> Option<&str>

Returns the name of the field with index `index`.
§

#### fn field_len(&self) -> usize

Returns the number of fields in the struct.
§

#### fn iter_fields(&self) -> FieldIter<'_> ⓘ

Returns an iterator over the values of the reflectable fields for this struct.
§

#### fn clone_dynamic(&self) -> DynamicStruct

Clones the struct into a `DynamicStruct`.
§

### impl TypePath for DAffine3where DAffine3: Any + Send + Sync,

§

#### fn type_path() -> &'static str

Returns the fully qualified path of the underlying type. Read more
§

#### fn short_type_path() -> &'static str

Returns a short, pretty-print enabled path to the type. Read more
§

#### fn type_ident() -> Option<&'static str>

Returns the name of the type, or `None` if it is anonymous. Read more
§

#### fn crate_name() -> Option<&'static str>

Returns the name of the crate the type is in, or `None` if it is anonymous. Read more
§

#### fn module_path() -> Option<&'static str>

Returns the path to the module the type is in, or `None` if it is anonymous. Read more
§

### impl Typed for DAffine3where DAffine3: Any + Send + Sync, DMat3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection, DVec3: FromReflect + TypePath + RegisterForReflection,

§

#### fn type_info() -> &'static TypeInfo

Returns the compile-time info for the underlying type.
source§

§

source§

source§

§

§

§

§

§

§

## Blanket Implementations§

source§

### impl<T> Any for Twhere T: 'static + ?Sized,

source§

#### fn type_id(&self) -> TypeId

Gets the `TypeId` of `self`. Read more
§

### impl<T, U> AsBindGroupShaderType<U> for Twhere U: ShaderType, &'a T: for<'a> Into<U>,

§

#### fn as_bind_group_shader_type(&self, _images: &RenderAssets<GpuImage>) -> U

Return the `T` `ShaderType` for `self`. When used in `AsBindGroup` derives, it is safe to assume that all images in `self` exist.
source§

### impl<T> Borrow<T> for Twhere T: ?Sized,

source§

#### fn borrow(&self) -> &T

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
source§

### impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for Twhere T: ?Sized,

source§

#### fn borrow_mut(&mut self) -> &mut T

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more
§

### impl<T> CheckedBitPattern for Twhere T: AnyBitPattern,

§

#### type Bits = T

`Self` must have the same layout as the specified `Bits` except for the possible invalid bit patterns being checked during `is_valid_bit_pattern`.
§

#### fn is_valid_bit_pattern(_bits: &T) -> bool

If this function returns true, then it must be valid to reinterpret `bits` as `&Self`.
§

§

§

### impl<T> Downcast for Twhere T: Any,

§

#### fn into_any(self: Box<T>) -> Box<dyn Any>

Convert `Box<dyn Trait>` (where `Trait: Downcast`) to `Box<dyn Any>`. `Box<dyn Any>` can then be further `downcast` into `Box<ConcreteType>` where `ConcreteType` implements `Trait`.
§

#### fn into_any_rc(self: Rc<T>) -> Rc<dyn Any>

Convert `Rc<Trait>` (where `Trait: Downcast`) to `Rc<Any>`. `Rc<Any>` can then be further `downcast` into `Rc<ConcreteType>` where `ConcreteType` implements `Trait`.
§

#### fn as_any(&self) -> &(dyn Any + 'static)

Convert `&Trait` (where `Trait: Downcast`) to `&Any`. This is needed since Rust cannot generate `&Any`’s vtable from `&Trait`’s.
§

#### fn as_any_mut(&mut self) -> &mut (dyn Any + 'static)

Convert `&mut Trait` (where `Trait: Downcast`) to `&Any`. This is needed since Rust cannot generate `&mut Any`’s vtable from `&mut Trait`’s.
§

### impl<T> DowncastSync for Twhere T: Any + Send + Sync,

§

#### fn into_any_arc(self: Arc<T>) -> Arc<dyn Any + Sync + Send>

Convert `Arc<Trait>` (where `Trait: Downcast`) to `Arc<Any>`. `Arc<Any>` can then be further `downcast` into `Arc<ConcreteType>` where `ConcreteType` implements `Trait`.
§

§

§

§

§

§

source§

### impl<T> From<T> for T

source§

#### fn from(t: T) -> T

Returns the argument unchanged.

§

§

§

### impl<T> FromWorld for Twhere T: Default,

§

#### fn from_world(_world: &mut World) -> T

Creates `Self` using data from the given `World`.
§

### impl<S> GetField for Swhere S: Struct,

§

#### fn get_field<T>(&self, name: &str) -> Option<&T>where T: Reflect,

Returns a reference to the value of the field named `name`, downcast to `T`.
§

#### fn get_field_mut<T>(&mut self, name: &str) -> Option<&mut T>where T: Reflect,

Returns a mutable reference to the value of the field named `name`, downcast to `T`.
§

### impl<T> GetPath for Twhere T: Reflect + ?Sized,

§

#### fn reflect_path<'p>( &self, path: impl ReflectPath<'p>, ) -> Result<&(dyn Reflect + 'static), ReflectPathError<'p>>

Returns a reference to the value specified by `path`. Read more
§

#### fn reflect_path_mut<'p>( &mut self, path: impl ReflectPath<'p>, ) -> Result<&mut (dyn Reflect + 'static), ReflectPathError<'p>>

Returns a mutable reference to the value specified by `path`. Read more
§

#### fn path<'p, T>( &self, path: impl ReflectPath<'p>, ) -> Result<&T, ReflectPathError<'p>>where T: Reflect,

Returns a statically typed reference to the value specified by `path`. Read more
§

#### fn path_mut<'p, T>( &mut self, path: impl ReflectPath<'p>, ) -> Result<&mut T, ReflectPathError<'p>>where T: Reflect,

Returns a statically typed mutable reference to the value specified by `path`. Read more
§

### impl<T> Instrument for T

§

#### fn instrument(self, span: Span) -> Instrumented<Self> ⓘ

Instruments this type with the provided `Span`, returning an `Instrumented` wrapper. Read more
§

#### fn in_current_span(self) -> Instrumented<Self> ⓘ

Instruments this type with the current `Span`, returning an `Instrumented` wrapper. Read more
source§

### impl<T, U> Into<U> for Twhere U: From<T>,

source§

#### fn into(self) -> U

Calls `U::from(self)`.

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of `From<T> for U` chooses to do.

source§

### impl<T> IntoEither for T

source§

#### fn into_either(self, into_left: bool) -> Either<Self, Self> ⓘ

Converts `self` into a `Left` variant of `Either<Self, Self>` if `into_left` is `true`. Converts `self` into a `Right` variant of `Either<Self, Self>` otherwise. Read more
source§

#### fn into_either_with<F>(self, into_left: F) -> Either<Self, Self> ⓘwhere F: FnOnce(&Self) -> bool,

Converts `self` into a `Left` variant of `Either<Self, Self>` if `into_left(&self)` returns `true`. Converts `self` into a `Right` variant of `Either<Self, Self>` otherwise. Read more
§

§

§

### impl<T> NoneValue for Twhere T: Default,

§

§

#### fn null_value() -> T

The none-equivalent value.
§

### impl<T> Pointable for T

§

#### const ALIGN: usize = _

The alignment of pointer.
§

#### type Init = T

The type for initializers.
§

#### unsafe fn init(init: <T as Pointable>::Init) -> usize

Initializes a with the given initializer. Read more
§

#### unsafe fn deref<'a>(ptr: usize) -> &'a T

Dereferences the given pointer. Read more
§

#### unsafe fn deref_mut<'a>(ptr: usize) -> &'a mut T

Mutably dereferences the given pointer. Read more
§

#### unsafe fn drop(ptr: usize)

Drops the object pointed to by the given pointer. Read more
source§

source§

Read this value from the supplied reader. Same as `ReadEndian::read_from_little_endian()`.
source§

Read this value from the supplied reader. Same as `ReadEndian::read_from_big_endian()`.
source§

Read this value from the supplied reader. Same as `ReadEndian::read_from_native_endian()`.
source§

### impl<T> Same for T

§

#### type Output = T

Should always be `Self`
source§

source§

source§

source§

### impl<T> ToOwned for Twhere T: Clone,

§

#### type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.
source§

#### fn to_owned(&self) -> T

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more
source§

#### fn clone_into(&self, target: &mut T)

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more
§

§

§

§

source§

### impl<T> ToString for Twhere T: Display + ?Sized,

source§

#### default fn to_string(&self) -> String

Converts the given value to a `String`. Read more
source§

### impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for Twhere U: Into<T>,

§

#### type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
source§

#### fn try_from(value: U) -> Result<T, <T as TryFrom<U>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
source§

### impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for Twhere U: TryFrom<T>,

§

#### type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.
source§

#### fn try_into(self) -> Result<U, <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error>

Performs the conversion.
§

§

§

§

§

§

§

### impl<T> WithSubscriber for T

§

#### fn with_subscriber<S>(self, subscriber: S) -> WithDispatch<Self> ⓘwhere S: Into<Dispatch>,

Attaches the provided `Subscriber` to this type, returning a `WithDispatch` wrapper. Read more
§

#### fn with_current_subscriber(self) -> WithDispatch<Self> ⓘ

Attaches the current default `Subscriber` to this type, returning a `WithDispatch` wrapper. Read more
§

§

source§

§

§

§

§

§

§